Neither peace nor war?
This report investigates the security context in Kalehe territory in South Kivu from the time the FARDC conducted operations against the CNRD armed group in December 2019 until the resurgence of violence in the same area in May 2021. More than a year after the destruction of the CNRD strongholds in 2019, the report identifies three main security dynamics that have been reshaped. The first is the reactivation of local armed groups that had been dormant since the FARDC’s military operations a year earlier. The second is the general uptick in community conflicts, particularly between the Tembo and the Hutu. The third is the violent competition over resources. Various peace initiatives have been taking place around these three dynamics in the Kalehe area, where local development organizations, state and non- state organizations, and MONUSCO through its civil affairs section have been actively involved. Yet, unfortunately, there is no evidence that peace has been restored and it is rather a type of a paix des armes that gradually takes hold in Kalehe territory.